Topic: Causes & Risk Factors

Valve problems can be congenital or acquired from damage later in life, although the causes are not always known.

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    • Diagnosis, Treatment and Action Guide for Aortic Stenosis
      CardioSmart’s About My Aortic Stenosis guide was created by the American College of Cardiology to help patients and caregivers better understand Aortic Stenosis. The downloadable document provides information to help you track your symptoms, figure out a treatment plan and know what questions to ask your physician. To view this helpful guide, access the link below.
    • Personal Stories from American Heart Association's Heart Valve Ambassadors
      Learn more about the stories of American Heart Association’s group of heart valve disease ambassadors including, seven heart valve disease survivors and one caregiver who represent the wide variety of people who are affected by heart valve disease. Read about each ambassador’s unique story here.
    • Patient experiences with mechanical heart valve replacements
      Four St. Jude Medical patients share their unique experiences with mechanical heart valve replacement.
    • University of Michigan Heart Valve Disease Website
      Heart valve disease is a condition in which one or more of your heart’s four valves — the tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic — don’t work correctly. This website from the University of Michigan highlights the different kinds of valve disease, as well as treatment options and patient resources.
    • Study Links High LDL Cholesterol to Aortic Valve Disease
      A 2014 study published in JAMA claims to have found evidence to support a causal association between high levels of “bad” cholesterol and aortic valve stenosis – a form of aortic valve disease in which the valve is narrowed, restricting blood flow from the heart.
    • Aortic Valve Disease Guide from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons
      This on-line guide from the Society for Thoracic Surgeons provides a comprehensive overview of aortic valve disease including disease basics, causes & symptoms, diagnosis & treatment options, and recovery.   The resource also features a video from Dr. Robbin A Cohen.
    • Cleveland Clinic Heart Valve Disease Treatment Guide
      Use this guide as a resource as you examine your treatment options. It covers causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments of valve disease. The guide also explains the different types of valve repair surgery.
    • Minimally-Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Information from Johns Hopkins Medicine
      This website from Johns Hopkins Medicine Heart & Vascular Institute gives a brief overview of the aortic valve, the different kinds of aortic valve disease, and the minimally invasive forms of valve repair and replacement.
    • Questions to Ask: Understanding a Potential Heart Valve Problem
      Review these important questions to ask about a potential heart valve problem, from the American Heart Association. These questions can be used as a guideline for discussion with a medical professional.
    • Association Between Bad Cholesterol and Aortic Valve Disease
      A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association links high levels of LDL (bad cholesterol) and aortic valve disease. The researchers observed genetic variation to discover markers that cause disease.
    • Overview of Heart Valve Conditions from Emory Healthcare
      This useful site from the Structural Heart & Valve Center at Emory Healthcare provides an overview of several common heart valve diseases, including risk factors and common symptoms associated with each valve disease. Diseases include Aortic Valve Stenosis, Mitral Valve Stenosis, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis, and Tricuspid Valve Stenosis.
    • Aortic Stenosis Infographic
      This interesting infographic from answers many questions about Aortic Stenosis, a very common heart valve disease. It was designed by Adam Pick, a former double heart valve surgery patient and the founder of
    • NIH Heart Valve Disease Webpage
      Visit the NIH’s National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website for information about heart valve disease, including causes, risk factors, signs/symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and more!
    • Northwestern Medicine Heart Health Assessment
      Want to know how healthy your heart is? Check out this short assessment by Northwestern Medicine to get snapshot of your heart health.
    • Valvular Heart Disease Guidelines from the American Heart Association
      Stay updated with the latest valve disease news by watching this video about the newest guidelines set out by the American Heart Association.
    • Linda Kincaid's story: “I thought 'well, maybe this is just part of getting older.' But I knew that something was really wrong.“
      Linda Kincaid shares her experience with valve disease. After her symptoms started to worsen and her energy level dropped, Linda contacted her cardiologist and was diagnosed with mitral valve stenosis. Linda underwent valve replacement surgery and after recovery was able to return to doing the activities that she enjoys.